Sharing Student Scholarship: Curriculum at Baylor, 1921-1930

For the next five weeks, we’re putting up teasers about the fascinating Baylor history, 1921-1930, that Higher Education and Student Affairs students analyzed and shared on the Foundations and History of Higher Education class blog. This week we’re looking at Curriculum at Baylor, with papers examining the 1920s evolution controversy, the founding of the business school, and the developing Spanish department. Did you know that…

Baylor University's Hankamer School of Business, early image after construction is completed, photo by Windy Drum Photo, 1961.
The Baylor University business school began in 1923 and became known as the Hankamer School of Business in 1959 when Earl C. Hankamer gave most of the money needed for the school to have its own building. This Windy Drum photo was taken shortly after construction was completed. Baylor–Buildings–Hankamer School of Business.
  • President Samuel Palmer Brooks was concerned that the student body, incensed by J. Frank Norris’ accusations against the university on the teaching of evolution might be incited to mob action by Norris himself as a publicity stunt in his favor. Read more…
  • One of the motivations for beginning the business school in 1923 was that Baylor’s male enrollment was dropping, as men were going to UT (where they could pursue business studies) instead of Baylor. Discover more…
  • Spanish faculty members in the 1920s sometimes were called on to teach other subjects, such as German and chemistry. (Fortunately, the professors in question did have background in those disciplines!) Learn more…

We hope you’ll explore these blog posts and enjoy the benefits of the HESA students’ research and scholarship. If you’re inspired to dig deeper, most of their sources can be found in the University Archives within The Texas Collection and in our digitized materials available online in the Baylor University Libraries Digital Collections.

Background on this project: Students in the Higher Education and Student Affairs (HESA) masters program have taken on the challenge of creating original scholarship that adds to what is known about Baylor’s history. As part of Dr. Nathan Alleman’s Foundations and History of Higher Education course, students were grouped under the five class themes: curriculum, finance, students/student groups, access, and religion. In collaboration with Texas Collection archivists and librarians, students mined bulletins, newspapers, correspondence, and other primary resources as they researched their topics. Final papers have been posted on blogs.baylor.edu/hesabaylorhistoryproject and grouped by their particular sub-topic so that patrons, researchers, and other interested persons could benefit from these students’ work. This is the second installment of an annual accumulating project–see last years teasers here. Please visit again for future installments!

Baylor Quiz Time

by Amanda Norman, University Archivist

A "slime" (freshman) scrubs the Baylor seal in the foyer of Pat Neff Hall, 1951
Fortunately, freshmen aren’t imposed on anymore to use the toothbrush method to keep the Pat Neff Hall seal clean–and the seal is roped off to keep people from walking on it.

It’s back to school today—time for a quiz! These Baylor trivia questions are drawn from things I’ve learned through assisting patrons with reference questions. Test your knowledge of the green and gold—or learn more about Baylor’s past!

  1. When did Baylor have its first female yell leader?
  2. In the 1950s-1960s, AFROTC cadets practiced their rifle shooting in an indoor range in what building? a) Bill Daniel Student Center b) Rena Marrs McLean Gymnasium c) Penland Hall
  3. What does legend say is buried near the swing in Burleson Quadrangle?
  4. How many years elapsed between when Tidwell Bible Building was first proposed and when it was completed?
  5. True or False—A Baylor student designed the Baylor seal in the floor of the Pat Neff Hall foyer.
  6. How much money did George W. Truett raise to eliminate Baylor’s debt in his role as financial agent in the early 1890s?
  7. Sociology is a part of the College of Arts and Sciences now, but it hasn’t always been housed there. In what school did it reside in the 1920s?
  8. What subject did the first African-American professor at Baylor teach?
  9. How many classes celebrated their graduation at Baylor Stadium (now Floyd Casey Stadium)?
  10. Who coined Baylor’s motto, Pro Ecclesia, Pro Texana?
Yell Leaders at Baylor (Floyd Casey) Stadium, circa 1970
The female yell leaders in this 1970s photo were not the first.
Vivienne Malone-Mayes in the classroom, undated
Vivienne Malone-Mayes in the classroom, undated

Answers

  1. Weta Timmons was elected a yell leader in 1923 and is heartily commended for her efforts in the Lariat. However, after her term and up to 1968, there were no female yell leaders. The decision to break that gender gap was much debated throughout the 1960s.
  2. a) Bill Daniel Student Center. From 1953 to about 1964, the AFROTC competitive shooting team carried rifles up four flights of stairs to the attic of the Student Union Building and practiced target shooting. Apparently you could hear the shots outside the building (through air vents) but not inside.
  3. An “Indian princess” from the Huaco Indian tribe. When Colonel Joseph Warren Speight owned the property, his daughters found turquoise beads beneath a tree where they were playing. Speight investigated and found the skeleton. According to a Huaco legend, a plague befell the tribe. The chief’s beloved daughter helped nurse the ill but eventually died herself, and the bones are hers. In the 1930s, a marker declaring the grave to be that of “an Indian Princess” was erected on the site but was later removed and then returned in 1988.
  4. Twenty-one years. The building was first conceived in 1933 but wasn’t completed till 1954. It was delayed due to fundraising challenges, including World War II and other building priorities like Baylor Stadium, Armstrong Browning Library, and the Student Union Building. Architectural problems also delayed the project—an overly ambitious initial design, leading to a new architect being engaged and a lawsuit. Check out BU Records: Tidwell Bible Building Campaign Committee at The Texas Collection
  5. True. Enrique Ramirez designed the seal for the building, which was completed in 1939. Ramirez was an art student who did various art and design projects for the university throughout his time at Baylor.
  6. Truett raised $100,000 in two years. Benajah Harvey (B.H.) Carroll, the president of the board of trustees, offered the job of financial agent to Truett, who accepted the position but suffered a bad case of the measles before he could start the job.  After completing the fundraising project, Truett enrolled at Baylor as a student in 1893, and, of course, went on to become a major figure in Texas Baptist history. In 1990, Baylor claimed his name for a future seminary, and in 1994, the first students began classes at George W. Truett Theological Seminary at Baylor University. Check out the George W. Truett papers at The Texas Collection. We also have many of the books he authored and audio recordings of his sermons.
  7. The School of Commerce and Business Administration, which was founded in 1923 (and now is known as the Hankamer School of Business). Political science and journalism are a few other departments that were housed in the new program but eventually were moved to the College of Arts and Sciences.
  8. Vivienne Malone-Mayes was hired as a mathematics professor at Baylor in 1966—only five years after she had been denied admittance to the school as a graduate student. She was among the first black women in the nation to earn a PhD in mathematics. Check out the Vivenne Malone-Mayes papers at The Texas Collection and her oral memoirs from the Institute for Oral History.
  9. Five. The classes of 1951-1955 celebrated commencement exercises at Baylor Stadium. In 1956, President Eisenhower came to Baylor and gave the commencement address. According to the Lariat, his advisors “much preferred that he speak in a completely enclosed building,” so the venue was moved that year to the (un-air conditioned and thus very warm) Heart O’ Texas Coliseum. Commencement was held there until 1988, when the Ferrell Center was constructed.
  10. Rufus Burleson. When he accepted the presidency of the university in 1851, he included an outline of institutional policies. Number eight on the list was, “The mottoes of Baylor University shall be, “Pro Ecclesia, Pro Texana;” “Dulce et Decorum, pro patria Mori.” The Baylor seal still boasts the first motto, which translates to “For Church, For Texas.” The latter quote is attributed to the Roman poet Horace, and roughly translates to, “It is sweet and proper to die for your country.” It fell out of use as an official slogan—really, it’s not clear if it ever was adapted. Check out the Rufus C. Burleson papers at The Texas Collection.

You can read more about these stories and many others in the digitized Lariats, Round-Ups, and press releases, just a few of many Texas Collection items that can be found on the Baylor Digital Collections site. And if you want to investigate even further, drop me a line at The Texas Collection—we have archival records on many of these people and places.

Research Ready: July 2013

Each month, we post a processing update to notify our readers about the latest collections that have finding aids online and are primed for research. Here’s the scoop for July:

Wellington children, circa 1888
A few years after Anna Wellington Stoner and her husband, Clinton Stoner, moved to Bullshead, Edwards County in Texas, Clinton died in 1884. In October of the same year, Anna moved her three small children (pictured) back to the Nueces River Canyon and bought 320 acres of land there. This was the beginning of the Stoner Ranch, which has grown to 2,000 acres today.
  • [Waco] Branch Davidians: Bill Pitts papers, 1963-2001, undated: This collection contains materials produced and collected by Bill Pitts, a professor in the Religion Department at Baylor University. The materials primarily cover the Branch Davidians siege of 1993.
  • Benjamin Edwards Green papers, 1840-1865: Green’s papers consist of a postcard, pamphlets, written notes, an unpublished manuscript and other chapter fragments. Among other roles, Green was a lawyer, served as an American diplomat at the Mexican capitol in the early 1840s, and was a secret agent in the West Indies.
  • James Weldon Jones papers, 1917-1919, circa 2010: This collection contains a series of letters sent from Alexander “Tip” Jones to his son, James Weldon Jones, while the latter was serving in the United States Army during World War I.
  • Vivienne Malone-Mayes papers. Inclusive: 1966-1977, undated: Malone-Mayes’ papers consists of correspondence, minutes, reports and other records related to her terms as a member and Chairperson of the Board of Trustees for the Heart of Texas Region Mental Health Mental Retardation Center in Waco, Texas. The collection also contains personal materials and coursework Dr. Malone-Mayes assigned in her mathematics courses at Baylor University. She was Baylor’s first black faculty member.
Women and Mathematics / Mathematical Association of America publication, 1976
Vivienne Malone-Mayes was a trailblazer for women, particularly African Americans, in the mathematics profession. In 1966, she became only the fifth African American woman to earn her PhD in that field. After gaining employment at Baylor University, Vivienne did her part in encouraging women to pursue careers in mathematics, including editorial and consultation work with the Mathematical Association of America.
  • Irwin Green and Lillie Worley McGee papers, 1893-1899, undated: The McGee papers consist of notes, assignments, and exams produced by Irwin Green and Lillie Worley while attending Baylor in the 1890s, providing insight into Baylor’s curriculum during this period.
  • Walter Hale McKenzie papers, 1926-1952: The McKenzie papers contain correspondence and board and committee minutes illustrating McKenzie’s relations to prominent Baptists J.G. Hardin, George W. Truett, Pat Neff, and others, and his service to Baylor University, Baylor College for Women, and the Baptist General Convention of Texas.
  • Wellington-Stoner-McLean family collection, 1833-2007, undated: This collection consists of family documents collected by Margaret Stoner McLean. The collection includes correspondence and postcards, photographs, financial documents, books, personal ledgers, and publications about the family and the Stoner ranch.

New Buildings, New Technology: Growth at the Hankamer School of Business

By Geoff Hunt, Audio and Visual Curator

The designs for the new Hankamer School of Business (HSB) building reflect a state-of-the-art facility that will provide the latest in technology to advance student learning and innovation. The school has outgrown its current facility across the street from us on 5th Street, but back when it was conceived and built in the late 1950s and early 1960s, that building, too, was a high-tech place.

Baylor University's Hankamer School of Business, early image after construction is completed, photo by Windy Drum Photo, 1961.
Baylor University’s Hankamer School of Business, Windy Drum Photo, 1961.

Yesterday Baylor announced the naming gift for the new campus. With hopes for construction to start in December 2013, soon business students will attend classes at the Paul L. Foster Campus for Business and Innovation. And Paul Foster follows in the footsteps of other leaders who have helped to make innovation possible for the School of Business.

Earl Hankamer/Baylor business school
Baylor University’s Hankamer School of Business Groundbreaking: Earl C. Hankamer breaks ground at the event on March 11, 1960.

Although Baylor’s School of Business was established in 1923, it didn’t really have a proper home until the late 1950s—classes were held all over campus, including in the Student Union Building. A gift of more than half a million dollars from Mr. and Mrs. Earl C. Hankamer on March 20, 1959, changed that. Their donation was added to an existing amount previously raised to build the new $1 million business school building. The first classes in the new building, with the school now named after Hankamer, were held on May 5, 1961.

Hankamer and Paul Foster have more than generosity in common—they share the oil business too. Earl C. Hankamer was one of 13 children and was from the town of Hankamer (named after his pioneering family), in Chambers County, Texas. After working his way through school at various jobs, he completed his bachelor of arts degree from Baylor in 1915. He then went on to be a prominent Texas oilman. As noted in his obituary, he was known as “an unpretentious businessman who gave millions to various educational and medical programs while insisting his efforts should go without praise.” Mr. Hankamer also gave of his time, serving on the Baylor Board of Trustees for 41 years, and 15 years as chairman of the board for the Baylor College of Medicine.

Baylor University's Hankamer School of Business, under construction, photo by Windy Drum Photo, 1960.
Baylor University’s Hankamer School of Business, under construction, Windy Drum Photo, c. 1960.

So the Hankamers laid the groundwork for the current facility, but in 1962, it got another boost in the form of a gift from Baylor trustee and businessman, Carl Casey. This would enable the purchase of a historic campus first: an IBM 1620 Data Processing System.

Baylor University, Hankamer School of Business, Casey Computer Lab, IBM 1620 Data Processing System, September 13, 1967
Baylor University, Hankamer School of Business, Casey Computer Center: IBM 1620 Data Processing System, the university’s first computer, acquired in 1962.

Not many universities had computers at this time or taught computing courses. This was the first computer at Baylor available for student use and would be housed at the HSB campus. The unit carried a price tag of nearly $100,000 but was discounted to $40,000 after an educational grant. To house the new computer as well as the existing punch card devices in the business school, Baylor added the Casey Computer Center to the business school building.

But how to use this new technology? Dr. Helen Ligon, who would later become a professor in the Information Systems department, received specialized training in Dallas to operate the new IBM 1620. Dr. Ligon had started teaching at the business school in 1958 as an instructor in shorthand, report writing, and letter writing, so this was quite a shift for her. However, it was not long before Dr. Ligon and others at Baylor would see the benefits that the computer could have to the department and the entire university.

Baylor University, Hankamer School of Business, Casey Computer Lab, IBM System 3, 1974
According to the press release accompanying this photo, Helen Ligon, Louis Pisaturo, and Loren Decker examine a printout from the new IBM System/3 computer installed in Baylor University’s Hankamer School of Business in 1974. This computer replaced the IBM 1620…and the computers have been getting smaller ever since!

The acquisition of this IBM computer would help lead to the development of the Management Information Systems courses taught at the HSB today. Dr. Ligon saw the potential of the computer for teaching, research, and business operations applications, and courses based around the use of the IBM 1620 began. The computer not only served the HSB, but also those doing research in education, math, science, psychology, or any department at Baylor University that needed this type of specialized equipment. As Dr. Ligon noted, the machine could perform in hours calculations that would take a human months or years to complete.

Of course, many others have continued to support the development of learning spaces for Baylor business students, from the Cashion Academic Center to specialized classrooms like the Southwest Securities Financial Markets Center. These contributions, and now that of Paul L. Foster, follow in the footsteps of the gifts from the Hankamers, the Caseys, and the faculty and staff like Dr. Ligon who helped to bring these spaces to life with learning opportunities for students. As the new building begins to take shape, we look forward to seeing how future Baylor business leaders will make the most of their new home.

View our Flickr slideshow below to explore the construction of the current business school building and the evolution of technology at Baylor, from typewriters and adding machines to personal computers.

Read more:

Sharing Student Scholarship Online: Curriculum at Baylor, 1900-1920

For the first five weeks of the spring 2013 semester, we’re putting up teasers about the fascinating Baylor history that Higher Education and Student Affairs students analyzed and shared on the class’ blog. Last week we explored students and student organizations at Baylor. This week we’re looking at Curriculum at Baylor, with topics ranging from external and internal influences on the courses offered at Baylor, how faculty and student organizations influenced curriculum, and the changing role of Latin in a Baylor student’s education. Did you know that…

HESA Baylor History blog

  • A bill introduced in 1919 could have ended the teaching of German at Baylor? In the wake of World War I, a Texas senator tried to pass bills forbidding the teaching of the language in any Texas schools, public or private. (He did not succeed.) Learn more about the various groups that influenced or attempted to influence Baylor’s curriculum in 1900-1920.
  • The courses offered in Baylor’s Oratory department were affected by student interests as reflected by student organizations. (For example, the literary societies we mentioned last week emphasized debate, and the oratory curriculum was adjusted to hone student speeches from “speaking pieces” to “masterpieces.”) Read more about the synergistic give-and-take between faculty curriculum development and student organizations.
  • In 1905, prospective Baylor students had to have taken four Latin classes to be considered for admission. By 1920, no Latin was required at all for graduation. Discover how the emphasis on Latin and classical education declined at Baylor.

We hope you’ll explore these blog posts and enjoy the benefits of the HESA students’ research and scholarship. If you’re inspired to dig deeper, most of their sources can be found in the University Archives within The Texas Collection and in our digitized materials available online in the Baylor University Libraries Digital Collections.

Background on this project: Students in the Higher Education and Student Affairs (HESA) masters program have taken on the challenge of creating original scholarship that adds to what is known about Baylor’s history between 1900 and 1920. As part of Dr. Nathan Alleman’s Foundations and History of Higher Education course, students were grouped under the five class themes: curriculum, finance, students/student groups, access, and religion. In collaboration with Texas Collection archivists and librarians, students mined bulletins, newspapers, correspondence, and other primary resources as they researched their topics. Final papers have now been posted on a University-hosted EduBlog site and grouped by their particular sub-topic so that patrons, researchers, and other interested persons could benefit from these students’ work. This is the first installment of an annual accumulating project–please visit again for future installments.